Lightning Protection and Earthing

All structure in factory area protected against direct and indirect lighting strike in accordance with the latest British Standard Code of

Lightning Protection

Lightning Protection

Practice.

The lighting protector shall be of “Early Streamer Emission” system as made by Indelec of France or equivalent.

Earthing system of the lighting protection shall be separated to the electrical earthing system and shall be below of 5 hours.

Number of such preventor, type and installation shall be as recommended by the manufacture as be proposed to the Engineer for approval.

Earthing

Earthing Grounding

Earthing Grounding

Earthing system shall be provided for turbo alternators, diesel alternators, main switch boards, MCC, and sub distribution boards using 5/8” copper and 1” x 1/8” copper strip. Copper rods to be used as electrodes which driven into the ground and interconnected with copper strips in order to obtain a station earth of below one ohm. For regularly inspection purpose some of test links and inspection pits for every connection between electrodes and earthing conductor shall be provided.

 

Related Post :

Main Switchboard (MSB)

Motor Control Centre (MCC) and Distribution Boards (DB)

Power and Lighting Circuits

Kelistrikan Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (Palm Oil Mill)

 

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Power and Lighting Circuits

All lighting and power circuits shall be in accordance wit single line diagram, as approved by Engineers. Any addition or deviations in

Lighting Main Building

Lighting Main Building

size, type or route shall be under permission in writing by Engineer. Power cables and wires shall be in compliance with the following specification:

All cable and wire inside buildings shall be of cooper conductor, PVC seated 600/1.000 volt grade insulation, having cross sectional area not less than 2.5 sq.mm and complying with Standard Industri Indonesia (SII). The cable shall be installed and protected mechanically and electrically as necessary in trenches, in conduits, in trays or in trunking. Number and size of cable in any trunking or conduit shall not exceed that given in the current editions of the IEE regulations of PUIL 1987. Cables shall be installed in such manner that it is possible to withdraw any number from the conduit or trunking without disturbing the remainder. Along all circuit shall be installed with earth continuity conductor with cross suction are as necessary. The protective conductor shall be PVC seated with double colour green and yellow.

All cable installed underground outside buildings shall be of cooper conductor having cross sectional are not less than 2.5 sq.mm. PVC seated to 600/1.000 volt insulation grade and armored. The cable shall be laid in trenches; bedding with fine sand compacted and covered with tiles along the route. The depth of the trench to the cable not less than 600 mm, and 900 mm if crossing any roads. At any turn of the cable routes are at every 50 m distant, shall be installed a concrete cable marker that exposed on the ground.

1. Lighting In the Building

Lighting arrangement in the mill and office buildings should be generally in accordance with the following illumination level specifications:

1. General lighting factory in the mill : 150 Lumen/sq. m

2. On task (instrument & machineries) in the mill: 500 lumen/sq. m.

3. Boiler room and power house: 150 lumen/sq.m. With colour corrected mercury vapour lamp.

4. Office (on task above 1 meter from finish floor level) : 1.000 lumen/sq.m.

5. Workshop: 300 lumen/sq.m.

6. Toilet block, mush olla and others: 300 lumen.sq.m.

2. Lighting Fitting in Office, Toilet Block and Musholla

Fluorescent lighting shall be generally installed in the office and other non industrial buildings. The fitting should be recessed ceiling mounted and equipped with reflector and luminance louver of anodized aluminium as made by Philip, Autholite or Europhane of France.

Lighting fitting for over out buildings should be of ceiling mounted with round or square opal methacry late diffuser, integrated control gear ad fully dust proof.

3. Lighting Fitting in The Mill and Workshop

Lighting mill workshop should be of fluorescent tubes mercury or sodium vapour lamp. The fitting should be of anticorrosive material, vibrating proof integrated control gear and in compliance with protection grade IP 54. Lighting for instrumentation and rotating machineries should be arranged to minimize stroboscopic effect.

4. Street and Fencing Lighting

Street and fencing lighting arrangement should be in accordance with the drawing PPD C 246-1/1. Illumination level on the road and fencing should be as following:

1. Average illumination level along the road not less than 20 lumen/sq.m.

2. Average illumination level along the fencing not less than 5 lumen/sq.m.

3. On unloading ramp not less than 300 lumen/sq.m.

Lighting should be of mercury or sodium vapour lamp as described on the drawing. The housing should be of anticorrosive material, weather proof with grade protection IP 65. Lighting fitting should be fixed on hexagonal, octagonal or circular steel lighting columns in cross section. The wall thickness not less than 5 mm galvanized and painted.

Each column shall be provided with a weather proof door with tamper proof locking device to give access to the base compartment. The same pattern lock shall be us for all columns. Door openings shall be to the minimum size consistent with access to the fused cut-out, cable terminations and control gear where fitted in the base compartment.

 

Related Post :

Main Switchboard (MSB)

Motor Control Centre (MCC) and Distribution Boards (DB)

Lightning Protection and Earthing

 

Pengoperasian Loading Ramp

Periksa terlebih dahulu seluruh bahagian unit Loading Ramp sebelum Ramp diisi dengan TBS.

Hal yang perlu diperiksa antara lain sebagai berikut :

–          Periksa apakah lantai Loading Ramp tidak ada yang rusak/renggang yang memungkinkan brondolan dapat jatuh kebawah Loading Ramp.

–          Periksa Level olie Hydrolic pada unit Hydrolic Pump.

–          Periksa apakah pintu-pintu Ramp dapat dibuka dan ditutup seperti biasanya, dll.

Pengisian Loading Ramp harus secara berurutan dan dimulai dari kompartemen pertama hingga kompartemen terakhir.

Demikian juga halnya dengan pengisian buah dari Loading Ramp kedalam Lorry Rebusan; yaitu buah yang lebih awal masuk ke Loading Ramp harus lebih dahulu diisikan kedalam Lorry (First in – First out).

Hal ini adalah untuk menghindari kemungkinan naiknya FFA yang disebabkan lamanya buah tertahan diatas Loading Ramp.

Setiap penuangan buah dari Truck ke Loading Ramp agar selalu diperhatikan apakah ada benda asing yang terikut masuk antara lain : potongan besi, batu, pelepah sawit, goni-goni plastik ex pupuk, dll.

Benda-benda asing tersebut agar secepatnya disingkirkan untuk tidak sampai terikut ke instalasi lainnya di pabrik, karena hal ini sangat berbahaya dan dapat merusak instalasi tersebut.

Pengisian buah kedalam Lorry agar diatur secara merata dan semaksimal mungkin.

Isi lorry yang tidak merata (berat sebelah) akan menyulitkan Hoist Crane pada saat mengangkat (miring) dan tidak jarang lorry ini terlepas kemudian jatuh dan membahayakan pekerja lain.

Isi lorry yang kurang penuh akan menurunkan effisiensi pemakaian uap (boros), dan disamping itu akan menjadi penyebab turunnya kapasitas rebusan.

Setiap ada kesempatan agar Loading Ramp dibersihkan dari sampah-sampah yang melekat pada lantai Ramp (kisi-kisi). Sampah yang dibiarkan melekat pada kisi lantai Ramp akan menghalangi pemisahan pasir dan kotoran dari tandan buah/brondolan.

Semua jatuhan (pasir dan kotoran) yang ada pada bahagian bawah Ramp harus dibersihkn minimal seminggu sekali.

Pengoperasian Jembatan Timbang

Pemeriksaan Timbangan oleh Bidang Metrologi

Adalah menjadi ketentuan bahwa suatu peralatan timbang (Timbangan), apakah itu Timbangan Jembatan (Weighbridge) atau Timbangan Analitis maupun Timbangan Elektronik harus dikalibrasi dan ditera ulang oleh petugas dari Bidang Metrologi setelah dipergunakan selam satu tahun.

Walapun demikian, apabila terjadi gangguan dan kerusakan kerusakan sebelum jatuh tempo maka Mill Manager wajib untuk melaporkan kepada Bidang Metrologi agar dapat dilakukan perbaikan dan kalibrasi.

 

Pengoperasian Jembatan Timbang.

1. Sebelum jembatan timbang dioperasikan agar terlebih dahulu diperiksa apakah semua peralatan dapat berfungsi dengan baik.

Sebagai indikasi : Jarum, Numeric Printer harus menunjukkan angka nol (0) pada beban kosong.

Bandingkan terlebih dahulu angka yang ditunjukkan oleh Timbangan Mekanik dengan angka penunjukkan Timbangan Elektronik terhadap berat beban yang sama, jika ternyata ada selisih segera diperiksa untuk dapat diketahui apa penyebabnya.

Tingkat perbaikan yang dapat dilakukan adalah sejauh hal tersebut tidak bertentangan dengan ketentuan-ketentuan yang telah digariskan oleh Bidang Metrologi, antara lain : tidak membuka Seal (Segel) yang telah dipasang oleh petugas Bidang Metrologi.

2. Truck yang masuk/keluar timbangan harus secara perlahan-lahan sebab perangkat Elektronik yang terpasang ditimbangan sangat peka (sensitif) terhadap beban yang mengejut.

Truck yang ditimbang harus berada dibahagian tengah lantai timbangan agar beban yang dipikul oleh timbangan terbagi rata.

Harus diperhatikan bahwa kapasitas maximum Timbangan adalah 30/40 Ton. Bila secaraVisual beban yang akan ditimbang melebihi kapasitas maximum jangan dicoba untuk ditimbang sebab hal ini akan merusak peralatan timbangan.

3. Kondisi ruang Timbangan tetap dipertahankan 20°C walaupun Timbangan tidak beroperasi sebab temperatur kamar tetap berpengaruh terhadap sensitifitas dari perangkat electronic timbangan. Bersihkan seluruh unit dari debu dan kotoran yang melekat.

Proses Penerimaan Buah

1.     Penerimaan Buah (Bunch Reception)

Setiap truck yang membawa Buah Kelapa Sawit terlebih dahulu harus ditimbang pada jembatan timbang (Weighbridge), untuk kemudian menuangkan (Unloading) buah tersebut ke Loading Ramp. Truck kosong yang kembali dari Loading Ramp sebelum keluar dari lokasi Pabrik harus ditimbang kembali sehingga berapa jumlah Buah Kelapa Sawit yang masuk ke Pabrik dapat diketahui beratnya.

Disamping hal diatas jembatan timbang juga berfungsi untuk menimbang Minyak Kelapa Sawit dan Inti Sawit yang akan dipasarkan.

Unit-unit pendukung Station Bunch Reception (penerimaan buah) antara lain adalah :

–          Weighbridge (Jembatan Timbang)

–          Loading Ramp

–          Dirt Conveyor/Dirt Vibrating Screen

2.     Jembatan Timbang (Weighbridge)

Weighbridge (Jembatan Timbang) berfungsi untuk menimbang berapa banyak Buah Kelapa Sawit yang masuk kedalam Pabrik dan juga berfungsi untuk menimbang produksi yang diangkut keluar dari Pabrik untuk diserahkan kepada pembeli.

Unit jembatan timbang terdiri dari :     – Timbangan Mekanis

– Timbangan Elektronik

– Lantai Jembatan Timbang

Saat ini jembatan timbang yang ada di Minamas Plantation adalah berkapasitas 30 ton s/d 40 ton sekali timbang.

3.     Loading Ramp

Truck berisi buah yang sudah ditimbang dituang ke Loading Ramp.

Lantai Loading Ramp dilengkapi dengan kisi-kisi yang mempunyai celah (± 10 mm) yang berguna untuk memisahkan pasir/sampah dari buah agar kotoran-kotoran tersebut tidak sampai terikut dan merusak instalasi pengolahan.

Pengisian buah kedalam lori agar diatur semaksimal mungkin karena hal ini berhubungan dengan effisiensi penggunaan uap di Rebusan dan berhubungan juga dengan kapasitas olah Pabrik.

Pada Loading Ramp, hal penting yang perlu mendapat pengawasan dan perhatian adalah terutama pada saat Loading Ramp tersebut penuh dan sebahagian buah berada di atas lantai beton.

Pada saat itu, truck-truck yang akan membongkar buah harus diawasi untuk tidak menggilas (menggiling) buah yang berada diatas lantai beton, karena buah-buah/brondolan yang hancur/lumat tersebut akan menjadi penyebab tingginya kerugian minyak pada Kondensat Rebusan. Walaupun minyak-minyak tersebut masih dapat dikutip pada Fat Pit, tetapi tentunya FFA akan meningkat dan sebaiknya hal ini dicegah.

4.     Dirt Conveyor/Dirt Vibrating Screen

Dirt Conveyor berfungsi untuk menghantar sampah ke tempat pembuangan melalui Dirt Vibrating Screen.

Brondolan yang tersaring dikumpul dan dimasukkan kembali kedalam lori sehingga kehilangan minyak dapat dihindarkan.

Motor Control Centre (MCC) and Distribution Boards (DB)

Motor control centre MCC and distribution boards (DB) are constructed to a group together motor starters at convenient locations.

MCC Kernel & Clarification

MCC Kernel & Clarification

At the same time to centralize control of equipment or machinery whose operations are inter-related or inter-dependent.

General arrangements of the MMC/Distribution boards are: Isolator shall be provided at the main incoming side. The switch shall be interlocked with the door of its compartment to prevent the door from being opened when the isolator is switched “On”.

At starters compartment, only the push button, pilot lamp and instruments shall be exposed on the door panel. Circuit breaker, contractors and others shall be installed inside. The door shall be keyed or pad-lockable for safety during maintenance.

For large MCC such kernel station shall be provided with mimic diagram, indicating process flow.

Mimic Kernel Plant

Mimic Kernel Plant

Welding sockets 3 phases, 30 ampere shall be provided on the threshing/pressing station, kernel recovery station and boilers motor control centre.

Electric motor starters shall generally be as follows :

a. Induction motors up to 5 Hp shall Direct On Line (DOL) starting.

b. Above 5.5 Hp shall be star-delta configuration or auto-transformator multi step starter as necessary to a particularly load condition.

Interlocking of the starter shall be provided and the stopping or tripping of a

starter shall result in the tripping of the following in sequence:

1. Fibre/shell (fuel) conveyor.

2. Air lock-fibre cyclone.

3. Depericarter fan.

4. Nut polishing drum.

5. Cake breaker conveyor.

6. Screw press.

 

Related Post :

Main Switchboard (MSB)

Power and Lighting Circuits

Lightning Protection and Earthing

 

Main Switchboard (MSB)

Construction:

The main switch board shall consists of switch gears, neutral switches, protective device instruments, power factor regulator device,

Main Switchboard

Main Switchboard

and synchronizer, mounted in sheet steel, floor mounting cubicles type, electrically and mechanically connected to form a composite switchboard.

The switch board and the component shall be fully protected against tropicalized ad climate condition and shall be dust and splash proof.

Rubber gasket plates shall be provided for mounting equipment and insulating panels between compartments shall be of high quality Bakelite.

The switch board shall be designed to serve two (2) units’ turbo alternator, three (3) units’ diesel genset, out-going panel and blank space to future extension of the mill capacity to 60 tons ffb/hour.

All steel used for the switch board construction shall be thoroughly cleaned of

all rust, oil and grease with dioxide or equal before painting. Painting shall be

two (2) coats of zinc chromate primer followed by two (2) coats of semi gloss

finishing synthetic enamel.

Bus Bar

The bus bar shall be tinned, air insulator and capable of carrying continuous load per phase at 3.600 amperes without exceeding the maximum permissible temperature in an ambient temperature of 47 degree C. The cross section for phases of each bar not less than 2.400 sq. mm, and for the neutral not less than 1.200 sq.mm. The bus bar shall be of unit length, of high conductivity hard drawn copper, rectangular bar. Color coding of the bar shall be in accordance with PUIL 1987.

Switch Gear

Five (5) units’ switch gear for turbo alternator and diesel generating sets shall be installed in the main switch board.

Switch board Gear for turbo alternator shall be of horizontally draw out type, airbreak metal clad cubicle type at suitable rating, isolating plugs and socket with

automatic safety shutters and having provision for pad locking. The rupturing capacity shall be minimum 31 MVA at 380 volts. Test certificate proving this rating from “Lembaga Masalah Ketenagaan” (LMK) PLN or other internationally recognized body shall be submitted to the Engineer. The switch gear shall be triple pole, manually operated single air break trip face integrated isolator.

Switch gear for diesel gensets could be of fixed type, there fore 3P-N Isolator or disconnector shall be installed between the bus bar and the switch gear for isolating during maintenance.

Neutral Switch

For neutral switch purpose, single pole knife switch shall be used. Earthing provision for the neutral shall be done at load side of the switch.

Power Factor Corrector

Power factor corrector computerized system as made by Nokia of Finland or equivalent shall be installed the system shall capable to improve power factor from 0.65 to about 0.95.

The power factor corrector in general comprises of reactive computerized power regulator and capacitor bank. The regulator shall be 12 steps, digital display, manual and automatic operations, fast response, panel mounting with minimum face 144 x 144 mm.

The capacitor bank shall include 8 step of capacitor, expandable to 12 steps; capacitor element shall of self healing and dry materials. Insulation level 3 Kv Rms/15 Kv Crest.

Synchronizer

All the six generating sets can be paralleled to the common bus bar at the main switch board. Each of generating set own synchronizing switch and key, Generally the synchronizer comprise of synchronoscope, double volt meter, double frequency meter synchronizing lamp and fuses, that installed in a particularly swing type panel. The panel shall be positioned that easily in monitoring during synchronizing operation.

Protective Device, Instruments and Others

The main switch board also provided with followings:

Protective devices to protect generating sets from reverse power, earth fault, overload and under voltage conditions. If such condition happens, protective device will actuate the switch gear to trip.

Instruments for reading electrical units such ampere meters, volt meters, frequency meters KWH meter, hour counter, KW meters power factor meter and others as necessary. The instruments shall have a minimum 144 mm x 144 mm face of suitable range and rating.

A panel heater, switch and indicator shall be installed in the base of each cubicle to prevent condensation. The heaters’ power not less than 80 watt.

Main switch boards’ lighting shall be installed in the canopy of board. Lighting system shall be arranged that in power interruption condition, some of lighting continuously lit by the Uninterruptible Power System (UPS) that provided for such conditions.

Out Going Feeder Cubicles

Out going panels shall be mechanically and electrically in one composite with the main switch board. The panels shall be provided with appropriate circuit breakers, ampere meters, volt meters, selector switch etc, to serve the following distribution board and motor control centres in and out of the mills:

01. Effluent treatment plant.

02. Office.

03. Oil storage tank.

04. Fruit reception.

05. Boiler demineraliser plant.

06. Studge recovery.

07. Workshop distribution board.

08. Domestic.

09. Water treatment plant.

10. Boiler no.1

11. Boiler no.2

12. Clarification station.

13. Kernel recovery station.

14. Threshing, pressing and depericarping station.

15. Compound lighting.

16. Lighting.

The circuit breaker shall have height breaking capacity, quick make and brake, thermal and magnetic setting adjustable, on and off trip states shall clearly indicated in different colours. The circuit breakers shall be of Merlin Gerin, Mitsubishi.

Out going to compound lighting shall be controlled manually and automatically by time switch.

 

Related Post :

Motor Control Centre (MCC) and Distribution Boards (DB)

Power and Lighting Circuits

Lightning Protection and Earthing