Clarification Station

Tujuan dari Clarifier adalah untuk memproses atau memurnikan jumlah maksimum Crude Palm Oil (CPO) dari CPO dan Non Oily Solids (NOS) yang tidak larut sehingga menghasilkan CPO yang baik bersih dan kering. produk akhir CPO harus memiliki kandungan kotoran (dirt) tidak lebih dari 0,02% dan kadar air (moisture) tidak lebih dari 0,01%. CPO hasil pressing ini direbus dengan air panas (steam) kemudian di diamkan agar terjadi proses pengendapan, dimana minyak akan mengambang dan sludge akan mengendap untuk memperoleh proses pemurnian selanjutnya. Setelah menetap itu dialirkan ke bagian bawah kompartemen menetap luar. Dari sini itu diperbolehkan meluap ke Heat Exchanger / pengering sebelum mentransfer melalui Tank dikalibrasi dengan metode pilihan penyimpanan atau kemasan.

Clarification Process

Palm Oil Mill Clarification Process

Di Pabrik Minyak Sawit, Minyak kasar yang diperoleh dari pengempaan, dibersihkan dari kotoran yang terutama berasal dari daging buah berupa bahan padat dan air. Maksud dari pada pembersihan/pemurnian Minyak kasar adalah untuk memurnikan Minyak tersebut agar diperoleh mutu sebaik mungkin dan dapat dipasarkan dengan harga yang layak.

Flow Proses

Crude Oil dari Screw Press masuk ke Sand Trap tank melalui sebuah talang (Gutter). Overflow dari Sand Trap Tank mengalir ke Crude Clarification StructureOil Tank (COT) melalui Vibrating Screen double deck dengan mesh 20.

Dari COT Crude Oil dipompakan melewati Crude Oil Buffer Tank menuju Vertical Continuous Settling Tank (CST) kapasitas 120 m3. minyak mentah ditahan untuk pengendapan dalam CST untuk memisahkan minyak bagus dan sludge.

Kebutuhan air panas untuk proses klarifikasi dan pressing di suplay dari Hot Water Tank kapasitas 6 m3 dengan over flow menuju Hot Well Tank yang akan dipompakan kembali oleh Hot Well Pumps menuju Hot Well Tank.

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Perawatan (Maintenance) Boiler

Perawatan yang baik pada boiler dapat menjamin umur teknis dan umur ekonomis yang relatif panjang. Dibawah ini di jelaskan cara-cara perawatan boiler, bila mana dilakukan lebih sering lebih menjamin amannya pengoperasian boiler  tersebut.

Setiap 1 s/d 2 minggu :

–          Memeriksa dan membersihkan strainer (saringan), air maupun steam.

–          Memerika dan membersihkan pipa dan dinding batu api dari semua abu dan kerak pembakaran yang melekat di dinding.

–          Memeriksa rotor (impeller) blower  terutama impeller blower ID Fan atas kemungkinan abu yang melekat.

Setiap 1 s/d 3 bulan.

–          Memeriksa dan membersihkan bagian luar dan dalam boiler.

–          Membersihkan bagian dalam semua water tube (pipa) dan semua header serta drum dari scale (kerak).

–          Memeriksa roster dan menggantinya jika ada yang patah/rusak

–          Membersihkan semuam abu dari dalam chimney.

Diatas 1 tahun :

–          Periksa dan perawatan pada casing (dinding)

–          Periksa dan perawatan pada gas duct dan dust collector.

–          Periksa dan perawatan pada collector, peralatan dan instrument.

–          Periksa dan perawatan pada kerangan, cock dan piping.

Setiap 2 tahun :

Setiap 2 tahun di lakukan pemeriksaan berkala yang disaksikan oleh depnaker setempat.

 

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Pemberhentian Mendadak Pada Boiler (Emergency Stop)

Sumber : Manual Book “Takuma Boiler ”

Mati Listrik

  • Alihkan secepatnya sistem pengisian air umpan dari electric pump ke steam pump.
  • Tutup penuh kerangan main steam (kerangan induk)
  • Buka semua pintu dapur dan pintu abu bagian depan
  • Buka damper ID Fan 100% secara normal, dengan jalan menarik Arm (tuas) pembuka damper ID fan.
  • Alihkan pengisian air umpan dari system automatic water regulating control ke sistem by pass.

Apabila level air terus menerus jatuh :

  • Pemeriksa semua kerangan buangan condesate dan blow down apakah ada yang terbuka, terutama kerangan blow down dari header dan dari lower drum
  • Jaga agar temperatur air pengisi boiler tidak lebih dari 100oC. Temperatur air pengisi > 100oC, air sudah bercampur dengan uap, sehingga dapat menyebabkan kevacuman di dalam pompa dan dapat mengakibatkan kerusakan pada pompa maupun turunnya kapasitas pompa.
  • Periksa kondisi air dalam feed water tank dan peralatan pendukung pada feed water tank.
  • Periksa kondisi pompa pengisi air boiler yang di gunakan.

Akibat kekurangan airpada boiler.

Jika ternyata level air gelas penduga di bawah batas terendah, segera hentikan pemasukan bahan bakar (matikan rotary feeder), matikan seluruh blower, tutup kerangan uap utama dan kerangan supplay uap lainnya untuk memelihara jumlah air yang masih ada dalam boiler.

Cari sebab – sebabnya dengan melakukan pemeriksaan pada bagian – bagian peralatan seperti :

–          Indicator level air pada upper drum

–          Regulator level air pada drum

–          Meter air pengisi (water flow meter)

–          Tekanan pada inlet dan outlet pompa air pengisi boiler

–          Level air dalam feed water tank

–          Pompa air pengisi (feed water pump)

–          Pemipaan air pengisi

Dan lain – lainnya yang mencurigakan.

Apabila telah di dapatkan penyebabnya, dasar level air harus didapat kembali. Apabila dasar level air pada boiler dalam batas – batas yang di izinkan, maka alihkan pengisian air dari automatis water regulating control ke sistem by pass. Selanjutnya boiler dapat dioperasikan kembali sesuai dengan petunjuk pengoperasian.

Apabila air dalam gelas penduga kondisi kosong sama sekali, sehingga tidak diketahui sampai dimana titik terendah kondisi air didalam boiler, sementara boiler full operation maka  boiler tidak boleh langsung di isi secara tiba –tiba. Sebab bila pipa dalam drum telah memperoleh panas yang berlebihan, dan apabila di isi secara tiba – tiba maka pipa – pipa pada drum yang dipasang dengan sistem expander (pengerolan) akan terjadi penyusutan yang dapat mengakibatkan kebocoran pada expander dan pipa – pipa boiler tersebut berubah bentuk serta drum akan bergeser dari posisinya.

Hal – hal yang harus kita lakukan pada kondisi sepeti ini :

  • Menutup semua kerangan supply uap untuk menjaga jumlah air yang ada di dalam boiler.
  • Hentikan supplay bahan bakar, matikan blower – blower dan double damper dust collector.
  • Tutup penuh semua damper pada ID Fan, FD Fan dan Secondary FD Fan.
  • Secepatnya pembakaran di dalam ruang dapur di matikan dan semua sisa pembakaran dikeluarkan.
  • Seluruh pintu dapur di tutup dengan rapat agar jangan ada udara luar yang masuk ke ruang dapur pembakaran yang dapat menurunkan temperatur boiler secara drastis dan juga mengakibatkan penyusutan air di dalam boiler dengan cepat.
  • Perlakukan boiler dengan kondisi tersebut di atas selama +- 3 hari agar temperatur turun secara alamiah
  • Setelah temperatur boiler benar – benar dingin, air dalam boiler di kosongkan, handhole  dan manhole dibuka semua.
  • Periksa seluruh pengerolan (expanding) pada pipa (water tube), apakah terjadi perubahan pengerolan (expanding) dari pipa atau water tube, dan laporkan ke depnaker setempat untuk mendapat petunjuk.
  • Bila tidak terdapat perubahan pastikan dengan melakukan hydrostatic test sebesar tekanan kerja +- 3 kg/cm2 (P + 3 kg/cm2), seijin depnaker.
  • Bila terjadi kebocoran maka laksanakan pengerolan (expanding) sesuai dengan prosedur yang berlaku dan bila dilaksanakan hydrotest tidak terdapat kebocoran maka boiler dapat di operasikan kembali dengan mengadakan pemanasan awal, seijin depnaker setempat.

Lightning Protection and Earthing

All structure in factory area protected against direct and indirect lighting strike in accordance with the latest British Standard Code of

Lightning Protection

Lightning Protection

Practice.

The lighting protector shall be of “Early Streamer Emission” system as made by Indelec of France or equivalent.

Earthing system of the lighting protection shall be separated to the electrical earthing system and shall be below of 5 hours.

Number of such preventor, type and installation shall be as recommended by the manufacture as be proposed to the Engineer for approval.

Earthing

Earthing Grounding

Earthing Grounding

Earthing system shall be provided for turbo alternators, diesel alternators, main switch boards, MCC, and sub distribution boards using 5/8” copper and 1” x 1/8” copper strip. Copper rods to be used as electrodes which driven into the ground and interconnected with copper strips in order to obtain a station earth of below one ohm. For regularly inspection purpose some of test links and inspection pits for every connection between electrodes and earthing conductor shall be provided.

 

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Power and Lighting Circuits

Kelistrikan Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (Palm Oil Mill)

 

Power and Lighting Circuits

All lighting and power circuits shall be in accordance wit single line diagram, as approved by Engineers. Any addition or deviations in

Lighting Main Building

Lighting Main Building

size, type or route shall be under permission in writing by Engineer. Power cables and wires shall be in compliance with the following specification:

All cable and wire inside buildings shall be of cooper conductor, PVC seated 600/1.000 volt grade insulation, having cross sectional area not less than 2.5 sq.mm and complying with Standard Industri Indonesia (SII). The cable shall be installed and protected mechanically and electrically as necessary in trenches, in conduits, in trays or in trunking. Number and size of cable in any trunking or conduit shall not exceed that given in the current editions of the IEE regulations of PUIL 1987. Cables shall be installed in such manner that it is possible to withdraw any number from the conduit or trunking without disturbing the remainder. Along all circuit shall be installed with earth continuity conductor with cross suction are as necessary. The protective conductor shall be PVC seated with double colour green and yellow.

All cable installed underground outside buildings shall be of cooper conductor having cross sectional are not less than 2.5 sq.mm. PVC seated to 600/1.000 volt insulation grade and armored. The cable shall be laid in trenches; bedding with fine sand compacted and covered with tiles along the route. The depth of the trench to the cable not less than 600 mm, and 900 mm if crossing any roads. At any turn of the cable routes are at every 50 m distant, shall be installed a concrete cable marker that exposed on the ground.

1. Lighting In the Building

Lighting arrangement in the mill and office buildings should be generally in accordance with the following illumination level specifications:

1. General lighting factory in the mill : 150 Lumen/sq. m

2. On task (instrument & machineries) in the mill: 500 lumen/sq. m.

3. Boiler room and power house: 150 lumen/sq.m. With colour corrected mercury vapour lamp.

4. Office (on task above 1 meter from finish floor level) : 1.000 lumen/sq.m.

5. Workshop: 300 lumen/sq.m.

6. Toilet block, mush olla and others: 300 lumen.sq.m.

2. Lighting Fitting in Office, Toilet Block and Musholla

Fluorescent lighting shall be generally installed in the office and other non industrial buildings. The fitting should be recessed ceiling mounted and equipped with reflector and luminance louver of anodized aluminium as made by Philip, Autholite or Europhane of France.

Lighting fitting for over out buildings should be of ceiling mounted with round or square opal methacry late diffuser, integrated control gear ad fully dust proof.

3. Lighting Fitting in The Mill and Workshop

Lighting mill workshop should be of fluorescent tubes mercury or sodium vapour lamp. The fitting should be of anticorrosive material, vibrating proof integrated control gear and in compliance with protection grade IP 54. Lighting for instrumentation and rotating machineries should be arranged to minimize stroboscopic effect.

4. Street and Fencing Lighting

Street and fencing lighting arrangement should be in accordance with the drawing PPD C 246-1/1. Illumination level on the road and fencing should be as following:

1. Average illumination level along the road not less than 20 lumen/sq.m.

2. Average illumination level along the fencing not less than 5 lumen/sq.m.

3. On unloading ramp not less than 300 lumen/sq.m.

Lighting should be of mercury or sodium vapour lamp as described on the drawing. The housing should be of anticorrosive material, weather proof with grade protection IP 65. Lighting fitting should be fixed on hexagonal, octagonal or circular steel lighting columns in cross section. The wall thickness not less than 5 mm galvanized and painted.

Each column shall be provided with a weather proof door with tamper proof locking device to give access to the base compartment. The same pattern lock shall be us for all columns. Door openings shall be to the minimum size consistent with access to the fused cut-out, cable terminations and control gear where fitted in the base compartment.

 

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Main Switchboard (MSB)

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Motor Control Centre (MCC) and Distribution Boards (DB)

Motor control centre MCC and distribution boards (DB) are constructed to a group together motor starters at convenient locations.

MCC Kernel & Clarification

MCC Kernel & Clarification

At the same time to centralize control of equipment or machinery whose operations are inter-related or inter-dependent.

General arrangements of the MMC/Distribution boards are: Isolator shall be provided at the main incoming side. The switch shall be interlocked with the door of its compartment to prevent the door from being opened when the isolator is switched “On”.

At starters compartment, only the push button, pilot lamp and instruments shall be exposed on the door panel. Circuit breaker, contractors and others shall be installed inside. The door shall be keyed or pad-lockable for safety during maintenance.

For large MCC such kernel station shall be provided with mimic diagram, indicating process flow.

Mimic Kernel Plant

Mimic Kernel Plant

Welding sockets 3 phases, 30 ampere shall be provided on the threshing/pressing station, kernel recovery station and boilers motor control centre.

Electric motor starters shall generally be as follows :

a. Induction motors up to 5 Hp shall Direct On Line (DOL) starting.

b. Above 5.5 Hp shall be star-delta configuration or auto-transformator multi step starter as necessary to a particularly load condition.

Interlocking of the starter shall be provided and the stopping or tripping of a

starter shall result in the tripping of the following in sequence:

1. Fibre/shell (fuel) conveyor.

2. Air lock-fibre cyclone.

3. Depericarter fan.

4. Nut polishing drum.

5. Cake breaker conveyor.

6. Screw press.

 

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Main Switchboard (MSB)

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Main Switchboard (MSB)

Construction:

The main switch board shall consists of switch gears, neutral switches, protective device instruments, power factor regulator device,

Main Switchboard

Main Switchboard

and synchronizer, mounted in sheet steel, floor mounting cubicles type, electrically and mechanically connected to form a composite switchboard.

The switch board and the component shall be fully protected against tropicalized ad climate condition and shall be dust and splash proof.

Rubber gasket plates shall be provided for mounting equipment and insulating panels between compartments shall be of high quality Bakelite.

The switch board shall be designed to serve two (2) units’ turbo alternator, three (3) units’ diesel genset, out-going panel and blank space to future extension of the mill capacity to 60 tons ffb/hour.

All steel used for the switch board construction shall be thoroughly cleaned of

all rust, oil and grease with dioxide or equal before painting. Painting shall be

two (2) coats of zinc chromate primer followed by two (2) coats of semi gloss

finishing synthetic enamel.

Bus Bar

The bus bar shall be tinned, air insulator and capable of carrying continuous load per phase at 3.600 amperes without exceeding the maximum permissible temperature in an ambient temperature of 47 degree C. The cross section for phases of each bar not less than 2.400 sq. mm, and for the neutral not less than 1.200 sq.mm. The bus bar shall be of unit length, of high conductivity hard drawn copper, rectangular bar. Color coding of the bar shall be in accordance with PUIL 1987.

Switch Gear

Five (5) units’ switch gear for turbo alternator and diesel generating sets shall be installed in the main switch board.

Switch board Gear for turbo alternator shall be of horizontally draw out type, airbreak metal clad cubicle type at suitable rating, isolating plugs and socket with

automatic safety shutters and having provision for pad locking. The rupturing capacity shall be minimum 31 MVA at 380 volts. Test certificate proving this rating from “Lembaga Masalah Ketenagaan” (LMK) PLN or other internationally recognized body shall be submitted to the Engineer. The switch gear shall be triple pole, manually operated single air break trip face integrated isolator.

Switch gear for diesel gensets could be of fixed type, there fore 3P-N Isolator or disconnector shall be installed between the bus bar and the switch gear for isolating during maintenance.

Neutral Switch

For neutral switch purpose, single pole knife switch shall be used. Earthing provision for the neutral shall be done at load side of the switch.

Power Factor Corrector

Power factor corrector computerized system as made by Nokia of Finland or equivalent shall be installed the system shall capable to improve power factor from 0.65 to about 0.95.

The power factor corrector in general comprises of reactive computerized power regulator and capacitor bank. The regulator shall be 12 steps, digital display, manual and automatic operations, fast response, panel mounting with minimum face 144 x 144 mm.

The capacitor bank shall include 8 step of capacitor, expandable to 12 steps; capacitor element shall of self healing and dry materials. Insulation level 3 Kv Rms/15 Kv Crest.

Synchronizer

All the six generating sets can be paralleled to the common bus bar at the main switch board. Each of generating set own synchronizing switch and key, Generally the synchronizer comprise of synchronoscope, double volt meter, double frequency meter synchronizing lamp and fuses, that installed in a particularly swing type panel. The panel shall be positioned that easily in monitoring during synchronizing operation.

Protective Device, Instruments and Others

The main switch board also provided with followings:

Protective devices to protect generating sets from reverse power, earth fault, overload and under voltage conditions. If such condition happens, protective device will actuate the switch gear to trip.

Instruments for reading electrical units such ampere meters, volt meters, frequency meters KWH meter, hour counter, KW meters power factor meter and others as necessary. The instruments shall have a minimum 144 mm x 144 mm face of suitable range and rating.

A panel heater, switch and indicator shall be installed in the base of each cubicle to prevent condensation. The heaters’ power not less than 80 watt.

Main switch boards’ lighting shall be installed in the canopy of board. Lighting system shall be arranged that in power interruption condition, some of lighting continuously lit by the Uninterruptible Power System (UPS) that provided for such conditions.

Out Going Feeder Cubicles

Out going panels shall be mechanically and electrically in one composite with the main switch board. The panels shall be provided with appropriate circuit breakers, ampere meters, volt meters, selector switch etc, to serve the following distribution board and motor control centres in and out of the mills:

01. Effluent treatment plant.

02. Office.

03. Oil storage tank.

04. Fruit reception.

05. Boiler demineraliser plant.

06. Studge recovery.

07. Workshop distribution board.

08. Domestic.

09. Water treatment plant.

10. Boiler no.1

11. Boiler no.2

12. Clarification station.

13. Kernel recovery station.

14. Threshing, pressing and depericarping station.

15. Compound lighting.

16. Lighting.

The circuit breaker shall have height breaking capacity, quick make and brake, thermal and magnetic setting adjustable, on and off trip states shall clearly indicated in different colours. The circuit breakers shall be of Merlin Gerin, Mitsubishi.

Out going to compound lighting shall be controlled manually and automatically by time switch.

 

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Lightning Protection and Earthing