Cable Resistance & Reactance (Nexans Technical Data)

The resistance are based on the maximum cable operating temperature of 85oC (EPR) and 90oC (XLPE) for the different cable type codes selected.

Table 3 – Cable Resistance @ 85oC (EPR) or 90oC (XLPE)

Cancudtor

Area

(mm2)

Cable Resistance (Ω/km)

Cable Type Codes

H1

H3

H4

H5

H8

L1

L2

L4

L5

2.5

9.6

9.64

9.49

4

5.99

5.99

5.90

6

3.97

3.97

3.91

10

2.36

2.35

2.35

16

1.49

1.48

0.148

1.48

1.48

1.46

25

0.944

0.936

0.936

0.922

0.939

0.937

35

0.683

0.675

0.675

0.664

0.677

0.676

0.664

50

0.508

0.499

0.499

0.491

0.502

0.500

70

0.354

0.345

0.345

0.339

0.349

0.346

95

0.260

0.249

0.249

0.254

0.254

0.251

0.245

0.245

120

0.208

0.197

0.197

0.194

0.203

0.200

0.193

150

0.173

0.162

0.162

0.159

0.168

0.165

185

0.142

0.129

0.129

0.127

0.137

0.133

240

0.113

0.0990

0.0996

0.0979

0.108

0.103

300

0.0971

0.0797

0.0779

0.0904

400

0.0636

0.0763

500

0.0510

0.0660

630

0.0635

0.0416

0.0580

Table 4 – Cable Reactance @ 50 Hz

Cancudtor

Area

(mm2)

Cable Reactance (Ω/km)

Cable Type Codes

H1

H3

H4

H5

H8

L1

L2

L4

L5

2.5

0.158

0.093

0.0892

4

0.148

0.086

0.0833

6

0.143

0.084

0.0783

10

0.138

0.134

0.079

16

0.130

0.136

0.113

0.125

0.0753

0.0683

25

0.123

0.128

0.106

0.179

0.119

0.0754

35

0.118

0.123

0.102

0.174

0.117

0.0734

0.0650

50

0.114

0.119

0.099

0.170

0.114

0.0731

70

0.109

0.113

0.095

0.164

0.111

0.0709

95

0.105

0.109

0.091

0.159

0.107

0.0694

0.0625

0.0817

120

0.102

0.105

0.088

0.155

0.105

0.0691

0.0608

150

0.0987

0.102

0.086

0.153

0.104

0.0703

185

0.0967

0.101

0.084

0.151

0.104

0.0707

240

0.0935

0.096

0.081

0.147

0.101

0.0697

300

0.0934

0.095

0.118

0.100

400

0.093

0.100

500

0.090

0.099

630

0.0879

0.088

0.097

Cable Current Rating (Kabelindo Technical Data)

Table 1 – Conductor Short Circuit Current Capacity

Conductor area (mm2)

Short Circuit Rating (kA)

Conductor area (mm2)

Short Circuit Rating (kA)

0.5 second

1 second

0.5 second

1 second

2.5

0.41

0.29

95

15.45

10.93

4

0.65

0.46

120

19.52

13.80

6

0.98

0.69

150

24.40

17.25

10

1.63

1.15

185

30.09

21.28

16

2.60

1.84

240

39.03

27.60

25

4.07

2.88

300

48.79

34.50

35

5.69

4.03

400

65.05

46.00

50

8.13

5.75

500

81.32

57.50

70

11.38

8.05

630

102.46

72.45

Table 2 – Current Carrying Capacity at 30oC

Conductor area (mm2)

Current rating (A)

Conductor area (mm2)

Current rating (A)

1 Core

4 Core

1 Core

4 Core

2.5

35

25

95

335

245

4

46

34

120

390

285

6

58

44

150

445

325

10

80

60

185

510

370

16

105

80

240

620

435

25

140

105

300

710

500

35

175

130

400

850

50

215

160

500

1000

70

270

200

630

1195

Lightning Protection and Earthing

All structure in factory area protected against direct and indirect lighting strike in accordance with the latest British Standard Code of

Lightning Protection

Lightning Protection

Practice.

The lighting protector shall be of “Early Streamer Emission” system as made by Indelec of France or equivalent.

Earthing system of the lighting protection shall be separated to the electrical earthing system and shall be below of 5 hours.

Number of such preventor, type and installation shall be as recommended by the manufacture as be proposed to the Engineer for approval.

Earthing

Earthing Grounding

Earthing Grounding

Earthing system shall be provided for turbo alternators, diesel alternators, main switch boards, MCC, and sub distribution boards using 5/8” copper and 1” x 1/8” copper strip. Copper rods to be used as electrodes which driven into the ground and interconnected with copper strips in order to obtain a station earth of below one ohm. For regularly inspection purpose some of test links and inspection pits for every connection between electrodes and earthing conductor shall be provided.

 

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Main Switchboard (MSB)

Motor Control Centre (MCC) and Distribution Boards (DB)

Power and Lighting Circuits

Kelistrikan Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (Palm Oil Mill)

 

Power and Lighting Circuits

All lighting and power circuits shall be in accordance wit single line diagram, as approved by Engineers. Any addition or deviations in

Lighting Main Building

Lighting Main Building

size, type or route shall be under permission in writing by Engineer. Power cables and wires shall be in compliance with the following specification:

All cable and wire inside buildings shall be of cooper conductor, PVC seated 600/1.000 volt grade insulation, having cross sectional area not less than 2.5 sq.mm and complying with Standard Industri Indonesia (SII). The cable shall be installed and protected mechanically and electrically as necessary in trenches, in conduits, in trays or in trunking. Number and size of cable in any trunking or conduit shall not exceed that given in the current editions of the IEE regulations of PUIL 1987. Cables shall be installed in such manner that it is possible to withdraw any number from the conduit or trunking without disturbing the remainder. Along all circuit shall be installed with earth continuity conductor with cross suction are as necessary. The protective conductor shall be PVC seated with double colour green and yellow.

All cable installed underground outside buildings shall be of cooper conductor having cross sectional are not less than 2.5 sq.mm. PVC seated to 600/1.000 volt insulation grade and armored. The cable shall be laid in trenches; bedding with fine sand compacted and covered with tiles along the route. The depth of the trench to the cable not less than 600 mm, and 900 mm if crossing any roads. At any turn of the cable routes are at every 50 m distant, shall be installed a concrete cable marker that exposed on the ground.

1. Lighting In the Building

Lighting arrangement in the mill and office buildings should be generally in accordance with the following illumination level specifications:

1. General lighting factory in the mill : 150 Lumen/sq. m

2. On task (instrument & machineries) in the mill: 500 lumen/sq. m.

3. Boiler room and power house: 150 lumen/sq.m. With colour corrected mercury vapour lamp.

4. Office (on task above 1 meter from finish floor level) : 1.000 lumen/sq.m.

5. Workshop: 300 lumen/sq.m.

6. Toilet block, mush olla and others: 300 lumen.sq.m.

2. Lighting Fitting in Office, Toilet Block and Musholla

Fluorescent lighting shall be generally installed in the office and other non industrial buildings. The fitting should be recessed ceiling mounted and equipped with reflector and luminance louver of anodized aluminium as made by Philip, Autholite or Europhane of France.

Lighting fitting for over out buildings should be of ceiling mounted with round or square opal methacry late diffuser, integrated control gear ad fully dust proof.

3. Lighting Fitting in The Mill and Workshop

Lighting mill workshop should be of fluorescent tubes mercury or sodium vapour lamp. The fitting should be of anticorrosive material, vibrating proof integrated control gear and in compliance with protection grade IP 54. Lighting for instrumentation and rotating machineries should be arranged to minimize stroboscopic effect.

4. Street and Fencing Lighting

Street and fencing lighting arrangement should be in accordance with the drawing PPD C 246-1/1. Illumination level on the road and fencing should be as following:

1. Average illumination level along the road not less than 20 lumen/sq.m.

2. Average illumination level along the fencing not less than 5 lumen/sq.m.

3. On unloading ramp not less than 300 lumen/sq.m.

Lighting should be of mercury or sodium vapour lamp as described on the drawing. The housing should be of anticorrosive material, weather proof with grade protection IP 65. Lighting fitting should be fixed on hexagonal, octagonal or circular steel lighting columns in cross section. The wall thickness not less than 5 mm galvanized and painted.

Each column shall be provided with a weather proof door with tamper proof locking device to give access to the base compartment. The same pattern lock shall be us for all columns. Door openings shall be to the minimum size consistent with access to the fused cut-out, cable terminations and control gear where fitted in the base compartment.

 

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Main Switchboard (MSB)

Motor Control Centre (MCC) and Distribution Boards (DB)

Lightning Protection and Earthing

 

Motor Control Centre (MCC) and Distribution Boards (DB)

Motor control centre MCC and distribution boards (DB) are constructed to a group together motor starters at convenient locations.

MCC Kernel & Clarification

MCC Kernel & Clarification

At the same time to centralize control of equipment or machinery whose operations are inter-related or inter-dependent.

General arrangements of the MMC/Distribution boards are: Isolator shall be provided at the main incoming side. The switch shall be interlocked with the door of its compartment to prevent the door from being opened when the isolator is switched “On”.

At starters compartment, only the push button, pilot lamp and instruments shall be exposed on the door panel. Circuit breaker, contractors and others shall be installed inside. The door shall be keyed or pad-lockable for safety during maintenance.

For large MCC such kernel station shall be provided with mimic diagram, indicating process flow.

Mimic Kernel Plant

Mimic Kernel Plant

Welding sockets 3 phases, 30 ampere shall be provided on the threshing/pressing station, kernel recovery station and boilers motor control centre.

Electric motor starters shall generally be as follows :

a. Induction motors up to 5 Hp shall Direct On Line (DOL) starting.

b. Above 5.5 Hp shall be star-delta configuration or auto-transformator multi step starter as necessary to a particularly load condition.

Interlocking of the starter shall be provided and the stopping or tripping of a

starter shall result in the tripping of the following in sequence:

1. Fibre/shell (fuel) conveyor.

2. Air lock-fibre cyclone.

3. Depericarter fan.

4. Nut polishing drum.

5. Cake breaker conveyor.

6. Screw press.

 

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Main Switchboard (MSB)

Power and Lighting Circuits

Lightning Protection and Earthing

 

Main Switchboard (MSB)

Construction:

The main switch board shall consists of switch gears, neutral switches, protective device instruments, power factor regulator device,

Main Switchboard

Main Switchboard

and synchronizer, mounted in sheet steel, floor mounting cubicles type, electrically and mechanically connected to form a composite switchboard.

The switch board and the component shall be fully protected against tropicalized ad climate condition and shall be dust and splash proof.

Rubber gasket plates shall be provided for mounting equipment and insulating panels between compartments shall be of high quality Bakelite.

The switch board shall be designed to serve two (2) units’ turbo alternator, three (3) units’ diesel genset, out-going panel and blank space to future extension of the mill capacity to 60 tons ffb/hour.

All steel used for the switch board construction shall be thoroughly cleaned of

all rust, oil and grease with dioxide or equal before painting. Painting shall be

two (2) coats of zinc chromate primer followed by two (2) coats of semi gloss

finishing synthetic enamel.

Bus Bar

The bus bar shall be tinned, air insulator and capable of carrying continuous load per phase at 3.600 amperes without exceeding the maximum permissible temperature in an ambient temperature of 47 degree C. The cross section for phases of each bar not less than 2.400 sq. mm, and for the neutral not less than 1.200 sq.mm. The bus bar shall be of unit length, of high conductivity hard drawn copper, rectangular bar. Color coding of the bar shall be in accordance with PUIL 1987.

Switch Gear

Five (5) units’ switch gear for turbo alternator and diesel generating sets shall be installed in the main switch board.

Switch board Gear for turbo alternator shall be of horizontally draw out type, airbreak metal clad cubicle type at suitable rating, isolating plugs and socket with

automatic safety shutters and having provision for pad locking. The rupturing capacity shall be minimum 31 MVA at 380 volts. Test certificate proving this rating from “Lembaga Masalah Ketenagaan” (LMK) PLN or other internationally recognized body shall be submitted to the Engineer. The switch gear shall be triple pole, manually operated single air break trip face integrated isolator.

Switch gear for diesel gensets could be of fixed type, there fore 3P-N Isolator or disconnector shall be installed between the bus bar and the switch gear for isolating during maintenance.

Neutral Switch

For neutral switch purpose, single pole knife switch shall be used. Earthing provision for the neutral shall be done at load side of the switch.

Power Factor Corrector

Power factor corrector computerized system as made by Nokia of Finland or equivalent shall be installed the system shall capable to improve power factor from 0.65 to about 0.95.

The power factor corrector in general comprises of reactive computerized power regulator and capacitor bank. The regulator shall be 12 steps, digital display, manual and automatic operations, fast response, panel mounting with minimum face 144 x 144 mm.

The capacitor bank shall include 8 step of capacitor, expandable to 12 steps; capacitor element shall of self healing and dry materials. Insulation level 3 Kv Rms/15 Kv Crest.

Synchronizer

All the six generating sets can be paralleled to the common bus bar at the main switch board. Each of generating set own synchronizing switch and key, Generally the synchronizer comprise of synchronoscope, double volt meter, double frequency meter synchronizing lamp and fuses, that installed in a particularly swing type panel. The panel shall be positioned that easily in monitoring during synchronizing operation.

Protective Device, Instruments and Others

The main switch board also provided with followings:

Protective devices to protect generating sets from reverse power, earth fault, overload and under voltage conditions. If such condition happens, protective device will actuate the switch gear to trip.

Instruments for reading electrical units such ampere meters, volt meters, frequency meters KWH meter, hour counter, KW meters power factor meter and others as necessary. The instruments shall have a minimum 144 mm x 144 mm face of suitable range and rating.

A panel heater, switch and indicator shall be installed in the base of each cubicle to prevent condensation. The heaters’ power not less than 80 watt.

Main switch boards’ lighting shall be installed in the canopy of board. Lighting system shall be arranged that in power interruption condition, some of lighting continuously lit by the Uninterruptible Power System (UPS) that provided for such conditions.

Out Going Feeder Cubicles

Out going panels shall be mechanically and electrically in one composite with the main switch board. The panels shall be provided with appropriate circuit breakers, ampere meters, volt meters, selector switch etc, to serve the following distribution board and motor control centres in and out of the mills:

01. Effluent treatment plant.

02. Office.

03. Oil storage tank.

04. Fruit reception.

05. Boiler demineraliser plant.

06. Studge recovery.

07. Workshop distribution board.

08. Domestic.

09. Water treatment plant.

10. Boiler no.1

11. Boiler no.2

12. Clarification station.

13. Kernel recovery station.

14. Threshing, pressing and depericarping station.

15. Compound lighting.

16. Lighting.

The circuit breaker shall have height breaking capacity, quick make and brake, thermal and magnetic setting adjustable, on and off trip states shall clearly indicated in different colours. The circuit breakers shall be of Merlin Gerin, Mitsubishi.

Out going to compound lighting shall be controlled manually and automatically by time switch.

 

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Lightning Protection and Earthing

 

WIRING CONTROL

DESANDER SSC

DIGESTER SCREWPRESS

TIPPER

TRANSFER CARRIAGE

WIRING PAPX 307 PLUS